d.b.a. 3D Dosimetry
  • QAbyMail™ Service for High-Definition 3D End-to-End QA in Radiation Therapy and Radiosurgery


    CrystalBalls™:  radiochromic polymer gel dosimeters, sealed inside thin-wall glass spheres of standardized dimensions, approximating the size of a human head. ​ Self-developing.  Muscle-tissue equivalent.  Instant QA phantom setup.  No Cables.  No electronics.  Readout by a desk-top laser CT scanner. 

    Specifications:  isotropic voxel resolution down to (0.5mm)^3.  Dosimetric accuracy:  0.5% relative,  2% absolute. 

    For QA of:  SRS or SBRT,  using VMAT,  RapidArc, MR-Linac,  CyberKnife,  GammaKnife, Proton Therapy, Halcyon, and others.  Good for commissioning, machine QA, and patient-specific QA.  

    Ideal QA for single-isocenter VMAT of multiple brain metastases. 

    QAbyMail ™ Service:  Customers return exposed CrystalBalls and DICOM files to 3D Dosimetry Lab for laser CT scanning and QA analysis.  High-definition 3D QA reports are returned by email. They may be customized but normally include 3D gamma histograms & passing rates; volume histograms and voxel statistics for dose difference and distance-to-agreement; overlays of planned vs measured 3D and 2D isodoses, profiles and dose-volume histograms; detected shifts of the center of mass of the 3D dose cloud;  interactive 3D maps of dose difference, distance-to-agreement, and 3D gamma. 

    The CrystalBall™ mounted in a QA stand and ready for simulator CT
    The CrystalBall™ set up for Proton Therapy QA
    CrystalBall™ mounted in an SRS head frame

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            EXAMPLE  RESULTS
    Overlay of 3D isodose surfaces (here shown at 70% isodose level)
    Coronal frontal view of overlaid 3D isodose surfaces (VMAT of six brain metastases, PTV#4)
    Overlay of 2D (sagittal left) isodose lines (VMAT of six brain metastases, PTV#4)
    Overlay of I-S profiles (VMAT of six brain metastases, PTV#4)
    3D gamma
    3D gamma histogram for PTV#4 (VMAT of six brain metastases)
    3D DTA histogram for PTV#4 (VMAT of six brain metastases)
    3D Dose Difference histogram for PTV#4 (VMAT of six brain metastases)
    CrystalBall™ 3D QA report summary for one PTV in a six brain-metastases VMAT
    Proton Therapy QA
    Proton PBS IMPT. (a) 3D isodose surfaces at 50% dose level. Red - plan, blue - measurement; (b) Coronal isodoses. Solid - plan, dotted - measurement. (c) I-S profile overlay. Red - plan, blue - measurement, yellow - dose difference, magenta - DTA, cyan - 3D gamma.

The Crystal Ball™ End-to-End QA detects and measures any and all clinically significant cumulative errors that may originate anywhere during radiation therapy or radiosurgery planning and delivery process ​ and are located anywhere within the treated volume.