Affordable and accurate, high-definition 3D "CrystalBall™" treatment delivery verification (quality assurance) system for external-beam radiotherapy (including particle therapy) and radiosurgery as well as for medical physics research, comprising:
a. Radiochromic, human tissue-equivalent, spherical polymer-gel phantoms-dosimeters ("CrystalBalls"). Equivalent to a "continuous 3D film stack". Standard diameters 16.6 cm and 22.3 cm. Compatible with MR linacs; no electronics or cables or magnetic or conductive materials.
b. Instant-setup, sub-millimeter precision QA stands. Compatible with all image-guidance systems.
c. A table-top laser CT scanner ("OCTOPUS™") that digitizes 3D optical density in irradiated CrystalBall dosimeters. Isotropic (0.5 mm)^3 voxel. 0.5 % measurement uncertainty at 95% confidence level. Typical scan time per CrystalBall: 30 minutes.
d. Software (VOLQA™) for high-definition 3D End-to-End QA (patient-specific QA, machine QA, process QA)